Bibliography English Literature Coursework Definition

This is a listing of publicly-accessible texts which engage, in some direct way, with the history and condition of the academic discipline and institutionalised pursuit of “English Studies” (the English language, literature in English, Anglophone cultural studies) in Indian higher education (beyond high school) and research. The emphasis is on the academic discipline as it has been or is practised within the territories of the state of India, and on the public accessibility of listed texts (in print or electronically). The listing is naturally very far from complete. Details of further entries would be very gratefully received, and inserted after being checked – please email these to S.Gupta@open.ac.uk.   

Advani, Shalini (2009). Schooling the National Imagination: Education, English and the Indian Modern. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Contents: Introduction; Part 1: The Policy Landscape// 1. Becoming True Indians: Language, History, Modernity; 2. Language and the Postcolonial Predicament; 3. Education for Nationalism. Part 2: The Culture of Textbooks// 4. Constructing the Nation; 5. Normalizing Boundaries; 6. En-gendering the Nation. Part 3: Entering the School Gates// 7. Using Texts: An Ethnography of the Classroom. Conclusion: Nationalist Pedagogy, Sub-National Identities, Transnational Desires

Agnihotri, R.K. and A.L. Khanna (1997). Problematizing English in India. Delhi: Sage.

Chapters: Machine derived contents note: Language and Power; The Imperial Design; English in Post-independence India; Pedagogy of English; The Study; Sample Profile; Social and Individual Aspects of English in India; Elite Views; Conclusion.

Alam, Qaiser Zoha (1999). English Language Teaching in India: Problems and Issues. Delhi: Atlantic.

Chapters: The Teaching of English in India: Changing Scenario; Literary Criticism Can Wait; Appropriate English Language Teaching Technology; English Spelling – the Problems of Indian Learners; School Final Students and the Use of Preposition; The Preposition and the Undergraduate; Remedying Errors; Linguistics and Language Teaching; A Registral variety of Indian English; Humour and Translation: Evidence from indian English; An Aspect of Indian English.

Chatterjee, Kalyan K. (1976). English Education in India: Issues and Opinions.

Chapters: 1. Issues and Events: How it all Came About; 2. The Utilitarian Concern: Useful Knowledge and a Rational Morality; 3. Macaulayism: Response and Reaction; 4. The Renaissance Analogy: The Spread of an Idea; 5. The Moral Concern and the Pursuit of the Millennium; 6. The Oriental Vision: Synthesis and Indigenization; 7. Orientalism in Action: Translation and the Comparative Manner; 8. The Evangelist Thesis: Fide et Bonis Litteris; 9. Time’s Mirror: What are the Roots that Clutch.

Dash, Santosh (2009). English Education and the Question of Indian Nationalism: A Perspective on the Vernacular. Delhi: Aakar.

Chapters: Colonial Education and Native Agency; The Making of the National Elite; English and the Politics of the Vernacular; English in a Democratic Nation

Krishnaswamy, N. and Lalitha Krishnaswamy (2006). The Story of English in India. Delhi: Foundation. 

Chapters: The exploration and transportation phase; The consolidation phase: The grand design; The dissemination phase; The identity phase; The globalization phase

McCully, Bruce Tiebout (1940). English Education and the Origins of Indian Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Mukherjee, Alok K. (2009). This Gift of English: English Education and the Formation of Alternative Hegemonies in India. Delhi: Orient Blackswan.

Chapters: Introduction: A Personal Trajectory; Situating the Study; "This Gift of English": Setting the Stage; "The Most Beneficial and Lasting Legacy": Colonial Versus Revivalist Hegemony; The "Gift" Casts Its Spell--Part I: English Literature and Language Curriculum in Colonial India; The 'Gift" Casts its Spell-Part II: Texts, Examination and Hegemony; In the "Gift"'s Aftermath.

Narasimhaiah, C.D. (2002). English Studies in India: Widening Horizons. Delhi: Pencraft International.

Chapters: Introduction. I. Exploratory // 1. The comparative approach: multilateral scruitinies; 2. Commonwealth literature: search for alternative paradigms. II. English literature // 3. Shakespeare and the Indian sensibility; 4. On re-reading Milton; 5. Rudyard Kipling: conflict-resolutions of an outsider/insider; 6. English studies in the England of 1970s. III. Indian English literature // 7. Understanding Indian writing in English; 8. Aurobindo: inaugurator of modern Indian criticism; 9. Raja Rao: Novel as magic casement; 10. Should Indian writing in English replace English literature in our Academia. IV. American literature // 11. Inaugural address at a seminar on American literature; 12. The distinctiveness of American literature; 13. Creative America’s response to Emerson, Thoreau and T.S. Eliot. V. Australian literature // 14. Flowering of Australian literature; 15. Exploring the Australasian bonds. VI. African literature // 16. African poetry; 17. Where angels fear to tread : Chinua Achebe and Wole Soyinka as critics of African Ambience. VII. The West Indies, the Asia-Pacific region, and Canada // 18. Nobel prize for Derek Walcott; 19. A community of islands: the cultures and literatures of the Asia-Pacific region; 20. Canadian poetry in English. VIII. Related issues and concerns // 21. Commonwealth literature or post-colonial writing?; 22. Language literature controversy; 23. Towards the concept of a national literature for India.

Narasimhaiah, C.D. (1977). Moving Frontiers of English Studies in India. Delhi: S. Chand.

Chapters: 1. Indian Writing in English; 2. India and the Literature of the Commonwealth; 3. The Indian Critical Heritage: Its Relevance Today; 4. Search for Values in Literary Criticism; 5. An Indian Footnote on T.S. Eliot Scholarship on The Waste Land

Poddar, Prem (2002). Violent Civilities: English, India, Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Chapters: Introduction: 'Supplemental Accounts'; 'News from the Power-Lines': Transporting Postcolonial Theory; 'Our Commerce Will Follow': Englishing India;  'The State of Culture': National Imaginings;  'The Mirror is Empty': Postcolonial English studies;  Conclusion: 'deigns to travel...'

Prasad, G.J.V. (2011). Writing India, Writing English: Literature, Language, Location. Delhi: Routledge India.

Chapters: Preface; Part I. India, English, Translation // 1. A Minute Stretching into Centuries: Macaulay, English and India; 2. Translating Dalit Tamil Literature into English; 3. Tamil, Hindi, English: A New Ménage à Trois; 4. Trans-creating India(s): The Nation in English Translation; 5. Karnad, Tughlaq, India. Part II: Indian English Literature and the Nation // 6. Writing India, Writing English; 7. Romance in the West: Toru Dutt the Novelist; 8. Food for Thought: The Tamil Word of R. K. Narayan; 9. Always in the Poet’s Eye: Nissim Ezekiel’s India; 10. India in Verse: The Indian English Nation; 11. Terrifying Tara: The Angst of the Family.

Thiagarajan, Jayasudha (2010). Classroom Management and Quality Control: An Action Research with Postcolonial Perspective. Sarabruken, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. Theoretical Framework; 3. Quality as Tool for Action Research; 4. Action Research and Case Studies; 5. Conclusion

Trivedi, Harish (1993). Colonial Transactions. Calcutta: Papyrus / Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.

Chapters: Part I. Reception: English literature in India // 1. Shakespeare in India: colonial contexts; 2. Orientalism translated: omar Khayyam through Persian, English and Hindi; 3. Nationalism, Internationalism, Imperialism: Tagore on England and the West; 4. T.S. Eliot in Hindi: modes of reception. Part II. Representation: India in English Literature // 5. Byron and the East: from ‘orientalism’ to liberty; 6. ‘That he is an Englishman and I a Bengali’: Rabindranath Tagore and Edward Thompson; 7. ‘Ganga was sunken…’: T.S. Eliot’s use of India; 8. Passage or Farewell? Politics of the Raj in E.M. Forster and Edward Thompson. Part III. Reorientation: a postcolonial agenda // 9. Reading English, writing Hindi: English literature and Indian creative writing; 10. Panchadhatu: teaching English literature in the Indian literary context.

Viswanathan, Gauri (1989). Masks of Conquest: Literary Study and British Rule in India. London: Faber and Faber.

Chapters: Introduction; 1. The Beginnings of English Literary Study; 2. Praeparatio Evangelica; 3. "One Power, One Mind"; 4. Rewriting English; 5. Lessons of History; 6. The Failure of English; 7. Conclusion: Empire and the Western Canon.

Edited books

Agnihotri, R.K. and A.L. Khanna (1995). English language teaching in India : issues and innovations. Delhi: Sage.

Chapters: Introduction / R. K. Agnihotri and A. L. Khanna; 1. English Teaching in India: Past, Present and Future / N. Krishnaswamy and T. Sriraman; 2. Subjecting English / Rajeswari Sunder Rajan; 3. Resisting Industriality / Probal Dasgupta; 4. Teaching Language through Language / Usha Nagpal; 5. Literary Bias in Teaching of English as a Second Language / Raja Ram Mehrotra; 6. Use of Indian Culture and Myths in ELT / S. C. Narula; 7. The Tailor's Dummy: The Influence of Cultural Content of ESL Materials on Learner Output / Ranu V. Vanikar and Katayun K. Palia; 8. Achievement Levels of English among College Entrants / A. L. Khanna; 9. Needs-Analysis of the Indian Learners of English / Mohammad Aslam; 10. Need of the Indian Undergraduate Learners / S. C. Sood; 11. Media and Language Acquisition / R. Amritavalli; 12. A Two-tier Approach to the Teaching of English at the School Level / Soumini Pananghat; 13. Medium of Instruction in a Multilingual Context / Anju S. Gupta; 14. Classroom Interaction in Different Subject Classes: Implications for Bilingual Education Programmes and Curriculum Design in ESL / Karuna Kumar; 15. ELT and Grammar Teaching / R. P. Bhatnagar; 16. Grammar, Cognitive Abilities and Second Language Learning / Achla Misri Raina and R. K. Agnihotri; 17. Evaluation of a Mainstream Innovative Language Skills Course / Yasmeen Lukmani; 18. Professional Development of Teachers of English: Issues and Concerns / Sunil Kumar; 19. The Need for ELT Training for College Lecturers / Raj Kumar Khanna; 20. Curriculum Change in Process: The Case of an ELT Project / Prem Mathur; 21. Currents of Change in Teaching of English in CBSE Affiliated Schools: A Background Note / S. K. Gangal; 22. Telescoping the Past Six Years of the CBSE-ELT Project / Kiran Bhatt.

Aikant, Satish C. (2004). Critical Spectrum : Essays in Literary Culture. Delhi: Pencraft International.

Chapters include:  Introduction/ Satish C. Aikant. I. Culture/metaculture // 1. Some thoughts on the puzzle of identity/ Nayantara Sahgal; 2. Problematizing hybridity: the diasporic versus the stay-at-home writer/ Jasbir Jain; 3. Crossing cultures: Australia and the Asia-Pacific/ Bruce Bennett; 4. Culture and decolonization/ Satish C. Aikant; 5. Decolonizing English studies: towards Svaraj/ Makarand Paranjape; 6. A tangle of Indian English translation issues/ John Oliver Perry; 7. Reading and teaching translation/ Meenakshi Mukherjee; 8. The torture-point of song and the logistics of metaphor/ Syd Harrex; 9. C.D. Narasimhaiah: towards a common poetics for modern India/ K.C. Belliappa.

Ghotra, Balvinder ed. (2005). English Studies in India: Past, Present, and Future. Jaipur: Book Enclave.

Chapters: 1. Brand of shame or mark of destiny: The legacy of English in India/ Vinod Sena; 2. The great tradition of English studies in India/ Grace Romona J. Vaseeker; 3. English studies in India: yesterday, today and tomorrow/ Ranjana Mehrotra; 4. Reviewing coherence in teaching writing skill/ Rajul Bhargavaa; 5. Writing skills: The nuts and bolt/ Gunjan Chaturvedi; 6. Developing intermediate and advanced learners' English: Writing skills by communicative methods/ Susheela Beniwal; 7. Use of English in India: Elitism vs. effective communication/ Melva Pope; 8. The crisis of English studies in India/ AK Sinha; 9. Teaching of English in bilingual patterns of India: Classroom-oriented problems and prospects/ Jaydeep Sarangi; 10. Language learning in a bilingual setting English as a target language in India/ Nirupma Sharma; 11. Role of mother tongue in the teaching of English/ O.T. Poongodi; 12. An overview of English studies in India: With a focus on Haryana/ Geeta Rani Bindal; 13. English in Nagaland: A socio-functional view/ Seyie Whiso and N.D.R. Chandra; 14. Linguistic deficiency of tribal learners: How to mend it?/ G.S. Rathore; 15. Making ELT more meaningful to the students of professional education/ Meenakshi Raman; 16. Evaluation of ESL textbooks: A case study of XII Std. ESL textbooks in Maharashtra/ Radheshyam Dipte; 17. Role of literature in teaching English as a second language in India/ Asha Sharma; 18. Moving from English literature to literature in English/ V. Madhuramozhi; 19. Learners' poor achievement in English: Shift from traditional to need-based Syllabi/ Anupama Vohra; 20. Learners' poor achievement in English: Causes and remedies/ Vidya Kumar; 21. Learners' poor achievement in English: Causes and remedies/ S. Leela and O.T. Poongodi; 22. Commonsensical approach to teaching of English/ N.S. Kullur; 23. Newspapers: Treasure trove of idioms and phrases/ Umesh Arya Jangid; 24. Grammar should not be taught: It should be caught/ S. Kirubhakaran; 25. Chironomic method of teaching English grammar: English through five-fingers of one's hand/ Ramji Yadav; 26. Technology-enhanced language learning/ G. Subramanian and Devadas; 27. Teaching beyond classroom/ G. Damodar; 28. Teaching beyond classroom/ Mustufa Khan; 29. Creative writing in ESL classes/ Chandralekha Rao; 30. English in India: Today's strength and tomorrow's hope/ A. Joycilin Shermila; 31. English studies in India: A futuristic perspective/ K. Venkata Reddy

Gupta, R.S. and Kapil Kapoor eds. (1991). English in India; Issues and Problems. Delhi: Academic Foundation.

Chapters: 1. Introduction : English in India — Issues and Problems/ Kapil Kapoor and R.S. Gupta; 2. A Brief Note on Indianisms in Indian English/ V.K. Gokak; 3. English and Imperial Expansion/ Tulsi Ram; 4. The Failure of English as a Lingua Franca in India/ Anjuli Gupta; 5. English and Indian Culture/ N.B. Meena; 6. English in education/ S.K. Sareen; 7. English in Business and Administration/ Jennifer Bayer; 8. On Varieties of Indian English : Some Questions Regarding Foreign Language Varieties/ Shyamal Ghosh; 9. Sound Patterns of Indian English — A Sociolinguistic Perspective/ R.K. Agnihotri; 10. Indian English Today/ R.N. Srivastava and V.P. Sharma; 11. English and Indian Languages: Code-Mixing/ R.S. Gupta; 12. Teaching Spoken English in India/ Kapil Kapoor; 13. Writing in the Other Tongue: Expository Prose in Indian English/ Yamuna Kachru; 14. The Writer as Reader: Speculations on Some Sources of Nineteenth Century Literature in India/ Meenakshi Mukherji; 15. Impact of English on Indian Literature/ Aruna Sitesh; 16. Commitment to the Environment: Indian Poetry in English/ G.J.V. Prasad

Joshi, Svati ed. (1991). Rethinking English: Essays in Literature, Language, History. New Delhi: Trianka.

Chapters: 1. Rethinking English: An Introduction/ Svati Joshi; 2. Relating Histories: Definitions of Literacy, Literature, Gender in Nineteenth Century Calcutta and England/ Kumkum Sangari; 3. Translation, Colonialism and the Rise of English/ Tejaswini Niranjana; 4. Shakespeare in Loin Cloths: English Literature and the Early Nationalist Consciousness in Bengal/ Jasodhara Bagchi; 5. The Arrangement of an Alliance: English and the Making of Indian Literatures/ Susie Tharu; 6. Reading English, Writing Hindi: English Literature and Indian Creative Writing/ Harish Trivedi; 7. Disciplinary English: Third-Worldism and Literature/ Aijaz Ahmad; 8. A Note on Language, and the Politics of English in India/ Badri Raina; 9. Out Here: An English Teacher in the Provinces/ Alok Rai; 10. English Textbook, Indian Publisher/ Urvashi Butalia

Kar, Prafulla C., Kailash C. Baral and Sura P. Rath eds. (2003). Theory and Praxis: Curriculum, Culture and English Studies. Delhi: Pencraft International.

Chapters: Introduction; 1. Modernity and postmodernity/ Fred Dallmayr; 2. Columbus runs aground: Christmas Eve, 1492/ Stephen Greenblatt; 3. Unmasking colonial linguistico-cultural transactions—whither?/ S. Viswanathan; 4. Play in culture: football/ Rawdon Wilson; 5. Home(s) abroad: diasporic identities in third spaces/ Sura P. Rath; 6. The politics of borrowing: theories in postmodern and postcolonial discourse and theory/ John Sumanth Muthyala; 7. The ideology of literary criticism: the case of judgement, transcendence and clerisy/ R. Shashidhar; 8. Self-consuming art and facts (why the novel splatters)/ Robert Newman; 9. Feminism and/as myth: feminist literary theory between Frye and Barthes/ Barbara Godard; 10. Global intimacies in the cultural studies classroom/ Anna Neill; 11. Curriculum as conversation/ Arthur S. Williams; 12. Curriculum wars: pragmatism as truce/ Steven R. Shelburne; 13. The invisible hand: structural politics and the undergraduate curriculum/ Tom Samet; 14. Break the sentence, then break the sequence: Lesbian Biomythographies/ Jaime Harker; 15. Postecolonial theory: a new ontopology and radical politics/ Pramod K. Nayar; 16. The world beyond the book: theory at the end of the millennium/ Kalidas Misra; 17. Criticism in crisis: a note on the politics of pedagogy/ Hiren Gohain; 18. Where are we going from here? A note on the dilemmas and uncertainties of an English teacher in an Indian university today/ Sarla Palkar.

Marathe, Sudhakar, Mohan Ramanan, and Robert Bellarmine eds. (1993). Provocations: The Teaching of English Literature in India. Chennai: Orient Blackswan.

Chapters: I. Prolegomenon: The ‘Crisis’ of English Studies in India // 1. Retrospect and Prospect/ C.D. Narasimhaiah; 2. Certain Long-Simmering Questions/ Meenakshi Mukherjee; 3. TELI and the Non-Metropolitan Areas/ Anjana Desai; 4. Beyond English: Teli’s Larger Agenda/ Makarand Paranjape; 5. Teaching Selves and Reading Letters/ Venkat Rao; 6. Objectives and ‘Meaningfulness’ of Research/ L.S.R. Krishna Sastry. II. The English Classroom in India // 7. Text, Authenticity and Motiviation/ N. Gilroy-Scott; 8. The Experience of Literature and the Literature of Experience/ Ayappa Paniker; 9. From Initial Response to Critical Interpretation; 10. Indian Aesthetics in TELI/ V.S. Seturaman; 11. The Teaching of Criticism and Aesthetics/ R.B. Patnakar; 12. The Pedagogical Value of the New Criticism/ C.T. Indra; 13. Student-Teacher Interaction/ Shanta Mahalanobis; 14. Teaching Style/ A.K. Sinha; 15. Approaching the Classroom/ Susan Oommen; 16. Writing Workshops and the Oblique Approach/ Don Slater; 17. The Teaching of American Literature/ R.K. Gupta; 18. Poetry, Reader, Lover/ Bibhu Padhi; 19. The Teaching of Drama/ P. Rajani; 20. A Learner-Centred Approach/ B.S. Chandrika; 21. Text into Performance/ V. Bharati and A. Giridhar Rao. III. Valediction Forbidding Mourning // 22. Review of Discussion/ Milind Malshi; 23. Positive Influences/ G.V. Subrahmanyam; 24. Towards Newer Beginnings/ S. Viswanathan.

Paranjape, Makarand and G.J.V. Prasad eds. (2009). Indian English and ‘Vernacular’ India. Delhi: Pearson India.

Chapters: Part I: Essays // 1. A Minute Stretching into Centuries: Macaulay, English, and India/ G. J. V. Prasad; 2. English Bhasha: A Commentary Through Three Indian Narratives/ K. Narayana Chandran; 3. ‘What Is English Doing in India?’ A Historical Perspective on the ‘Awkward’ Question/ Avadhesh Kumar Singh; 4. Hindi, English and ‘Hinglish’: Colonial Cousins and the Re Vernacularization of ‘National’ Language/ Akshya Saxena; 5.English in India and Language Resource Studies/ Probal Dasgupta; 6. Probal’s ArchWay/ John Oliver Perry; 7. Us not US: Post-colonialism and Vernacular Literature/ Sumanyu Satpathy; 8. Why Is There So Little Indian English Poetry in Contemporary Bengal?/ Santanu Majumdar; 9. Vernacularizing the ‘Master’ Tongue: Indian English and Its Con-texts/ Makarand Paranjape. Part II: Interventions // 10. Inglish, How Cool!/ Gurcharan Das; 11. Angrezi, Angrezier, Angreziest/ Neelum Saran Gour; 12. Writing in English: A Writerly Perspective/ Susan Visvanathan; 13. Gulkand and Rose Jam/ Shashi Deshpande; 14. Writing and Not Writing/ Kavery Nambisan; 15. Indian English and Vernacular India/ Bhalachandra Nemade; 16. Mother Tongue, Other Tongue/ K. Satchidanandan; 17. ‘Home Clothes and Party Clothes’: In Denial about English/ Lakshmi Kannan; 18. Literature in the Indian Bhashas: Front Yards and Backyards/ U. R. Anantha Murthy

Paranjape, Makarand, Amit Sarwal and Aneeta Rajendran eds. (2000). English Studies: Indian Perspectives. Delhi: Mantra.

Chapters: Reviewing English Studies in India // 1. To the Best of My Knowledge/ K Narayan Chandran;  2. A Case for Comparative Literary Studies/ Avadesh K Singh; 3. Critical Pedagogy and English Studies/ Kailash C Baral. British Literature // 4. British Studies/ Kapil Kapoor; 5. Shakespeare Studies/ Shormistha Panja; 6. British Literature in the Indian Teaching Machine/ Mou Chattopadhyaya. American Literature // 7. American Studies/ Anil Raina; 8. American Literature: Pasts, Presents and Future Possibilities/ Subarno Chattarji; 9. Teaching Multiethnic American Literature/ Navneet Sethi. Canadian Literature // 10. Canadian Studies/ Om P Juneja; 11. Looking ahead through the Rear View Mirror/ Uma Parameswaran; 12. Reading Margaret Atwood/ Debarati Bandyopadhyay. Australian Literature // 13. Australian Studies/ Santosh K Sareen; Through Australian Eyes/ Amit Sarwal; 14. Caring Cultures Sharing Imaginations/ Pradeep Trikha. African Literature // 15. African Studies/ Amit Sarwal; 16. Articulating Resistance/ Mala Pandurang; 17. Gupshup/ Anjali Gera Roy. Indian English Literature // 18. Studying Indian English Literature/ G J V Prasad; 19. Vernacularising the Master Tongue/ Makarand Paranjape; 20. No Longer at Unease/ Brinda Bose. Indian Texts in English Studies // 21. Indian Texts in the English Studies Classrooms/ Kapil Kapoor; 22. Classic Case: Studying Indian Texts for an MA in English/ Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay. Translation Studies // 23. Translation Studies/ G J V Prasad; 24. Theorising Translation and Translation Studies/ M Asaduddin; 25. The Pedagogy of the Translated/ Makarand Paranjape. Literary Theory // 26. Indics in the Pomo shop/ Saugata Bhaduri; 27. South Asian contribution to Contemporary Cultural Theory/ Saufata Bhaduri; 28. Towards a Pragmatic Approach: Criticism for and in India/ John Oliver Perry; 29. Artificial Intelligence and the Other side of Theory/ Aneeta Rajendran. Postcolonial Studies // 30. Postcolonial Studies/ V. Padma. 31. The End of Postcolonialism/ Makarand Paranjape; 32. Postcolonial Entirely Misses the Point/ Amrita Bhalla

Rajan, Rajeswari Sunder ed. (1992). The Lie of the Land: English Literary Studies in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chapters: Background // 1. Fixing English: Nation, Language, Subject/ Rajeswari Sunder Rajan; 2. English in a Literate Society/ Gauri Viswanathan. The Colony and the Text // 3. Derozio: English Teacher/ Manju Dalmia. Pedagogy and Criticism // 4. Criticism and Pedagogy in the Indian Classroom/ Ania Loomba. Discussion: English Text/Indian Classroom // 5. Mansfield Park in Miranda House/ Ruth Vanita; 6. The Strange Case of Mohun Biswas/ Anuradha Marwah Roy; 7. Class in the Classroom: Pedagogical Encounters with Nectar in a Sieve/ Tapan Kumar Basu. Institutional Contexts // 8. Master English, Native Publisher: A Publishing Perspective on English Studies in India/ Rukun Advani; 9. Brokering English Studies: The British Council in India/ Rajeswari Sunder Rajan. Academic and Social Contexts: English Teachers and Students // 10. Attitudinal Orientation Towards Studying English Literature in India/ Yasmeen Lukmani; 11. Siting the Teacher/ Rimli Bhattacharya.  The Question(s) of Theory // 12. The Indian Academic and Resistance to Theory/ Suvir Kaul. Post-Colonial 'English' // 13. Mapping a Territory: Notes on Framing a Course/ Meenakshi Mukherjee; 14. 'History, Really Beginning': The Compulsions of Post-colonial Pedagogy/ Tejaswini Niranjana; 15. Dissimilar Twins: Language and Literature/ Rukmini Bhaya Nair; 16. The Burden of English Studies/ Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Annexure // 17. Landmarks in Official Educational Policy: Some Facts and Figures/ Lola Chatterji

Tharu, Susie ed. (1998). Subject to Change: Teaching Literature in the Nineties. Delhi: Orient Longman.

Chapters:  1. Government, Binding and Unbinding: Alienation and the Subject of Literature/ Susie Tharu; 2. Teaching the Bard in India/ Ania Loomba; 3. Figures, Configurations, Transfigurations/ Edward Said; 4. The Anatomy of a White Elephant: Notes on the Functioning of English Departments in India/ Srividya Natarajan, Nigel Joseph and S.V. Srinivas; 5. The Story of My ‘Sanskrit’/ Kumud Pawde; 6. Why I am Not a Hindu/ Kancha Ilaiah; 7. The Silence of the Subaltern Student/ Aniket Jaaware; 8. Questions for Cultural Politics/ Tejaswini Niranjana; 9. English Studies via Women’s Studies/ Rajeswari Sunder Rajan; 10. To be in Eng. Lit., Now That … The Voyage Out/ Satish Poduval; 11. Some Anthropological Observations on the Study of English Literature Prefaced by the Confessions of an English Teacher/ G.N. Devy; 12. Literary Translation: A technique for Teaching English Literature in a Bi-literary Context/ Vanamala Viswanatha; 13. Don’t State, Elicit: Strategies for Learner-focused, Text-based Teaching/ Yasmeen Lukmani; 14. Raymond Williams and British Colonialism/ Gauri Viswanathan; 15. Literature for the Empire: Rabindranath Tagore Reads English/ Mahasweta Sengupta; 16. “Ruining Everybody’s Fun”: Feminist Theory and Pleasure/ Srividya Natarajan and Rekha Pappu; 17. Some reflections on the Teaching of Literary Competence and Literature through language/ Shirin Kudchedkar; 18. Towards an Emancipatory Curriculum in English Studies/ K.P. Bhati; 19. “It Will Always Be Necessary to Go Again to Hyde Park”: Raymond Williams and English Studies/ Govind S. Shahani.

Chapters in books

Annamalai, E. (2004). “Medium of Power: the Question of English in Education in India”. In James W. Tollefson and Amy B.M. Tsui eds. Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Annamalai, E. (2008). “Equalizing Access to English in Education and Balancing Multilingualism in India”. In Dheram Premakumari (ed.). Negotiating Empowerment: Studies in English Language Education. Hyderabad: Orient Longman. 105-114.

Gupta, G.S. Balarama (1992). “Broadening the Spectrum: English Studies in India?” In Gordon Collier ed. Us/Them: Translation, Transcription and Identity in Post-Colonial Literary Cultures. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 161-66.

Krishnamurti, Bh. (1990). “The Regional Language vis-à-vis English as the Medium of Instruction in Higher Education: The Indian Dilemma”. In D.P. Pattanayak ed. Multilingualism in India. Cleveland OH: Multilingual Matters. 

Sudhakar, Marathe (2001). “Responsible Conscience? Or, How Not to Teach”. In D.A. Shankar, U.K. Natraj, and M. Satyanarayana Rao eds. Theory in Practice: Essays in Honour of C.D. Narasimhaiah. Mysore: Mahajana Education Society. 271-82.

Journal papers

Baral, Kailash C. (2000). “Postcoloniality, Critical Pedagogy, and English Studies in India”. Pedagogy 6:3, Fall. 475-91.

Bernabas, Simon G. (2011). “Contemporary Critical Theory and English Studies in India”. The IUP Journal of English Studies 6:2, June.

Chandran, K. Narayana (2006). “On English from India: Prepositions and Post-Positions”. The Cambridge Quarterly 35:2. 151-68.

Chandran, K. Narayana (2009). “English for ‘Specific’/ ‘Special’ Purposes: An Essay Concerning Indian Understanding”. Changing English 16:3, September. 201-12.

Durant, Alan (1986). “English Literature Teaching in India: Background and Present Situation”. Focus on English 2: 4. 2-9.

Evans, Stephen (2002). “Macaulay’s Minute Revisited: Colonial Language Policy in Nineteenth-Century India”. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 23:4. 260-81.

Faust, David and Richa Nagar (2001). “Politics of Development in Postcolonial India: English-Medium Education and Social Fracturing”. Economic and Political Weekly 36:30, 28 July. 2878-83.

Frykenberg, Robert E. (1988). “The Myth of English as a ‘Colonialist’ Imposition upon India: A Reappraisal with Special Reference to South India”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. No.2. 305-315.

Geetha, K.A. (2011). “Societal Transformation Through Literature”. Interventions 13:1, September. 398-421.

Ghosh, Suresh Chandra (1995). “Bentinck, Macaulay and the Introduction of English Education in India”. History of Education 24:1, March. 17-24.

Gohain, Hiren (1993). “Some Reflections on English Studies in India Now”. Journal of Contemporary Thought. 337-49.  

Gupta, G.S. Balarama (2007). “English Studies in India with Emphasis on Indian English Literature”. Journal of Indian Writing in English 35:2. 1-9.

Kochhar, R.K. (1992). “English Education in India: Hindu Anamnesis versus Muslim Torpor”. Economic and Political Weekly 27: 48, 28 November. 2609-2616.

Mekala (2005). “Towards developing an alternative syllabus for students majoring in
English Literature”. The Journal of ELT (India) 43:4. 30-36.

Mittapalli, Rajeshwar (2007). “English in India: Countering the Prejudices”. The ICFAI Journal of English Studies 2.2, June 2007. 21-27.

Nagarajan, S. (1981). “The Decline of English in India: Some Historical Notes”. College English 43:7, November. 663-70.

Rajan, Rajeswari Sunder (1986). “After ‘Orientalism’: Colonialism and English Literary Studies in India”. Social Scientist 14:7, July. 23-35.

Rajan, Rajeswari Sunder (2008). “English Literary Studies, Women’s Studies and Feminism in India”. Economic and Political Weekly 43:43, Oct.25-31. 66-71.

Raley, Rita (2000). “Cadmus Britannicus: Between Language and Literature in British India”. Ariel 31:1-2, January-April. 101-25.

Roy, Modhumita (1993). “The Englishing of India: Class Formation and Social Privilege”. Social Scientist 21:5/6, May/June. 36-62.  >> Also published as “‘Englishing India’: Reinstituting Class and Social Privilege”. Social Text 39, Summer 1994. 83-109.

Seshadri, C.K. (1997). “English Studies in India”. In Kar Prafulla C. ed. Critical Theory:
Western and Indian. Delhi: Pencraft International. 201-211.

Tasildar, Ravindra B. (2011). “Trends in General English Courses in Indian Universities”. The IUP Journal of English Studies 6:1, March. 67-72.

Magazine/newspaper articles (post-1990)

Bose, Brinda and Prasanta Chakravarty (2010). “English at the Marketplace”. The Telegraph (Calcutta), 24 June.

Jagirdar, Sarabjit (2010). “Linking Pay with Performance”. Hindustan Times, 25 May

Mohapatra, Himanshu S. (2004). “English in the Wake of NAAC”. The Hindu, 2 May.

Mukhia, Harbans (2009). “Waking the Higher Ed Elephant”. Indian Express, 29 June.

Rajan, P.K. (2000). “English Studies at the Crossroads”. The Hindu, 14 November.

Singh, V.D. (2003). “Many Perspectives, One Language”. The Hindu, 28 January.

Roy, Anita (1995). “Uprooting Red Daffodils”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 2 June, issue 1178. 18.

Suroor, Hasan (1997). “Indian Bookworms Turn”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 7 February, issue 1266. 48.

Suroor, Hasan (1998). “Bengalis Lobby for English”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 10 July, issue 1340. 10.

Suroor, Hasan (1997). “English Ditched in War on Colonial Culture”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 15 August, issue 1293. 9.

Suroor, Hasan (2000). “Bond Enters Canon”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 6 October, issue 1456. 11

“University of Delhi Includes Indian Authors for First Time in English-Literature Courses” (1999). Chronicle of Higher Education 45: 28, 19 March.

Relevant policy papers/research on policy

Altbach, Philip G. (1968). “Student Politics and Higher Education in India”. Daedalus 97:1, Winter. 254-73. 

Altbach, Philip G. (1969). Turmoil and Transition: Higher Education and Student Politics in India. New York: Basic.

Chaudhuri, Supriya (2011). “What is to be done? Economies of knowledge”. Thesis Eleven 105:1, May. 7-22. 

Gov. of India (1967). The Study of English in India: Report of the Study Group submitted to the Education Commission in 1965. New Delhi: Ministry of Education.

Gov. of India (1971). Teaching of English: Report of the Study Group on Teaching of English. New Delhi: Ministry of Education and Youth Services.

Gov. of India (2006). Report of National Knowledge Commission.
[available as a PDF download]

Gupta, O.P. (1993). Higher Education in India Since Independence: UGC and Its Approach. Delhi: Concept.

Jaidha, Manju (2004). “The Road to Hyderabad: MELUS in India”. MELUS 29: ¾, Fall/Winter. 481-98.

Jayaraman, N. (1993). “The Language Question in Higher Education in India: Trends and Issues”. Higher Education 26:1, July. 93-112.

National Commission for Higher Education and Research Bill, 2010.
[available online]

Panikkar, K.N. and M. Bhaskaran Nair eds. (2011). Emerging Trends in Higher Education in India. Delhi: Pearson.

Rajan, Rajeswari Sunder (2011). “The Semester System: Pros and Cons”. Economic and Political Weekly Vol.46, 16 July. 19-22.

Ram, Atma (1990). Higher Education in India: Issues and Perspectives. Delhi: Mittal.

Scrase, Timothy J. (2002). “Globalization and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: the Controversy over the Teaching of English in West Bengal, India”.  International Review of Education 48:5, September. 361-75.

University Grants Commission (1989). Report of Curriculum Development Centre in English. New Delhi: University Grants Commission.

Vijayan, P.K. (2012). “The semester system is a ‘free market’ utopia”. Tehelka 12 January.
[available online]

Relevant websites / blogs

MargHumanities website, esp. Englit page

Humanities Underground

For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here

This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the information sources that you use to underpin your writing. It explains the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work.

Other useful guides: Effective note making, Avoiding plagiarism.

Why reference?

When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers. It is essential that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including references to, and full details of, these sources in your work. Referencing your work allows the reader:

  • to distinguish your own ideas and findings from those you have drawn from the work of others;
  • to follow up in more detail the ideas or facts that you have referred to.

Before you write

Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read. These details should include:

  • surname(s) and initial(s) of the author(s);
  • the date of publication;
  • the title of the text;
  • if it is a paper, the title of the journal and volume number;
  • if it is a chapter of an edited book, the book's title and editor(s)
    the publisher and place of publication*;
  • the first and last page numbers if it is a journal article or a chapter in an edited book.

For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference.

* Please note that the publisher of a book should not be confused with the printer. The publisher's name is normally on a book's main title page, and often on the book's spine too.

When to use references

Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own. As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph. Look at the ways in which your sources use references in their own work, and for further guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism.

Referencing styles

There are many different referencing conventions in common use. Each department will have its own preferred format, and every journal or book editor has a set of 'house rules'. This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes. Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department.

How to reference using the 'author, date' system

In the 'author, date' system (often referred to as the 'Harvard' system) very brief details of the source from which a discussion point or piece of factual information is drawn are included in the text. Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text. This allows the writer to fully acknowledge her/his sources, without significantly interrupting the flow of the writing.

1. Citing your source within the text

As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name(s) (surname only) of the author(s) and the date of the publication. This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text.

The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers (Lyon, 1992).

The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in 1992. An alternative format is shown in the example below.

Knapper and Cropley (1991: p. 44) believe that the willingness of adults to learn is affected by their attitudes, values and self-image and that their capacity to learn depends greatly on their study skills.

Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text (in this instance a book) and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work.

When a publication has several authors, it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. (an abbreviation of the Latin for 'and the others') although for works with just two authors both names may be given, as in the example above.

Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:

Figure 1: The continuum of influences on learning (from Knapper and Cropley, 1991: p. 43).

Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:

Table 1: Type of work entered by humanities graduates (data from Lyon, 1992: Table 8.5).

You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation.

Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks (Barker, 1996).

If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.

The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance (Maria Lorenzini, pers. comm.).

'Pers. comm.' stands for personal communication; no further information is usually required.

2. Reference lists/ bibliographies

When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles.

Book references

The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above.

Knapper, C.K. and Cropley, A. 1991: Lifelong Learning and Higher Education. London: Croom Helm.

The reference above includes:

  • the surnames and forenames or initials of both the authors;
  • the date of publication;
  • the book title;
  • the place of publication;
  • the name of the publisher.

The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas. When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al.

Papers or articles within an edited book

A reference to a paper or article within an edited book should in addition include:

  • the editor and the title of the book;
  • the first and last page numbers of the article or paper.

Lyon, E.S. 1992: Humanities graduates in the labour market. In H. Eggins (ed.), Arts Graduates, their Skills and their Employment. London: The Falmer Press, pp. 123-143.

Journal articles

Journal articles must also include:

 

  • the name and volume number of the journal;
  • the first and last page numbers of the article.

 

The publisher and place of publication are not normally required for journals.

Pask, G. 1979: Styles and strategies of learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp. 128-148.

Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system. It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight.

Other types of publications

The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts. The same general principles apply to the referencing of all published sources, but for specific conventions consult your departmental handbook or your tutor, or look at the more detailed reference books listed in the Further reading section of this guide.

Referencing web pages

The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources.  Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet.   When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information.  A suggested format is to include the author of the information (this may be an individual, group or organisation), the date the page was put on the internet (most web pages have a date at the bottom of the page), the title, the http:// address, and the date you accessed the web page (in case the information has been subsequently modified).  A format for referencing web pages is given below.

University of Leicester Standing Committee of Deans (6/8/2002) Internet code of practice and guide to legislation. Accessed 8/8/02
http://www.le.ac.uk/committees/deans/codecode.html

Referencing lectures

Full references to unpublished oral presentations, such as lectures, usually include the speaker's name, the date of the lecture, the name of the lecture or of the lecture series, and the location:

Barker, G. 1996 (7 October): The Archaeology of Europe, Lecture 1. University of Leicester.

Please note that in contrast to the format used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no publication title to highlight.

Formatting references

If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used. There are many other ways in which references can be formatted - look at the books and articles you read for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks. The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency.

How to reference using footnotes or endnotes

Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes (notes at the foot of the page) or endnotes (notes at the end of the work) to reference their writing. Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same.

Footnote or endnote markers, usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing (superscript), are placed at the appropriate point in the text. This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above.

Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate.¹ This view has been supported by an early study that demonstrated that graduates employed in the industrial and commercial sectors were as likely to have lower second and third class degrees as firsts and upper seconds.²

Full details of the reference are then given at the bottom of the relevant page or, if endnotes are preferred, in numerical order at the end of the writing. Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system.

1. Moore, K. 1992: National Westminster Bank plc. In H. Eggins (ed.), Arts Graduates, their Skills and their Employment. London: The Falmer Press, pp. 24-26.

2. Kelsall, R.K., Poole, A. and Kuhn, A. 1970: Six Years After. Sheffield: Higher Education Research Unit, Sheffield University,
p. 40.

NB. The reference to 'p.40' at the end of note 2 above implies that the specific point referred to is to be found on page 40 of the book referenced.

If the same source needs to be referred to several times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used.

Studies of women's employment patterns have demonstrated the relationship between marital status and employment sector. ³
-------------------------
3. Kelsall et al. 1970 (as n.2 above).

In this example, the footnote refers the reader to the full reference to be found in footnote 2.

In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text. If you are unsure about how to use footnotes or endnotes in your work, consult your departmental guidelines or personal tutor.

If you are studying with the School of Law, you are required to follow the conventions of OSCOLA (The Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities). Full details of how to use this system are provided by the School. Copies of the system are also made available on Blackboard.

Finally

Whichever referencing system you use, you should check carefully to make sure that:

  • you have included in your reference list/bibliography, footnotes or endnotes full details of all the sources referred to in your text;
  • you have used punctuation and text formatting, such as italics, capitals, and bold text, in a consistent manner in your reference lists or footnotes.

Further reading

More detailed discussion of referencing conventions is to be found in the following publications:

  • Berry, R. 2004: The Research Project: How to Write It. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Gash, S. 1999: Effective Literature Searching for Students (second edition). Aldershot: Gower.
  • Gibaldi, J. 2004: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (sixth edition). New York: The Modern Language Association of America.
  • Watson, G. 1987: Writing a Thesis: a Guide to Long Essays and Dissertations. London: Longman.

There are also software programs, for example, Endnote and Refworks that are designed to manage references. They include the facility to incorporate 'author, date' insertions within your text, and to format reference lists automatically.

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